Controversial theoretical integration | English homework help

W 14 A
Why is theoretical integration controversial?
Please respond to this question between 800 and 1200 words.  The paper does not have to use APA 6 construction but please format your citations and references using APA 6 guidelines.

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W 14 D Q 1
In what context do you envision the impact of biosocial theories as outlined in Chapter of the Lilly text?

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W 14 D Q 2
What concepts and propositions are relied on heavily by life-course criminologists?

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Biosocial theory reduces the thoughts on personality disorders, mental illnesses and many types of disabilities, into thinking they are caused by biologically-determined personality traits that are simply reacting to the environmental stimuli.  This I believe this is a common factor in today’s world, when thinking about how we raise our children and how things are seemed to be passed down from generation to generation, morals and ethics.  When I talk with this at work with co-workers we often call this being a product of your environment.  “As often happens in science, some of the most dramatic developments in biologically oriented research have come about because of the developments not of new theoretical orientations but rather of new observation techniques.” (Lilly, Cullen, & Ball, 2011)  They are focusing more on brain functions, hormone disorders, and how the body reacts to different stimuli.  This will affect the levels of hormone in your systems and the glands in your body.  Even on the diet you eat is focused on, thinking that what you eat now can affect the people you will have in your future.
A problem with this is that if used it can class offenders into different types of humans.  Thinking that they are “super-predators whose brains genes, or constitution are defective” (Lilly, Cullen, & Ball, 2011)  Thinking and telling someone that they way they have been made is defective can become a dangerous process into the criminal mind of person, and their world.
Lilly, R. J., Cullen, T. F., & Ball, A. B. (2011). Criminological Theory. California: SAGE Publications Inc.

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W 14 # 1
In what context do you envision the impact of biosocial theories as outlined in Chapter of the Lilly text?
The impact of biosocial theories appears to gain support as ideology takes a back seat to empirical observation.  As we have evolved any particular theory can become popular pending on the mindset of the people.  We are so easily swayed by other opinion especially when it is presented in a fashion of bombardment based on another’s opinion.  Biosocial theories will be viewed along the lines of social support.  For a long time many believed that punitive punishment was the answer to crime prevention through deterrence and we can see the results of punitive action with the continuation of high crime and more incarceration.  Again, biosocial attributes have been affixed to the causation of crime.  Although many earlier biosocial theories gained much support, the people at that time only had limited accessibility to knowledge.  Perhaps, in the future the same can be said about current popular biosocial notions that are viewed as causation of behavior.  The empirical evidence of today does shed a more clear light on certain aspects of people; however, long term observation may prove solutions or explanations otherwise.  Policy will no doubly still rely on the prominent ideology (majority), but our understanding of the biological realm has caught up with our perceived understanding of the social realm.  Which one influences the other more and what solutions to implement will come through time, observation, and trial and error, as it always has been.

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The life course theory analyzes the lives of people on a structural, social and cultural context.  The theory examines people live to see how early events in their lives have effects the future decisions, such as marriage, divorce, substance use, and engaging in crime. 
            Moffitt argued that there are two groups that offenders are can be placed into determined effectiveness of the theory.  “Moffitt argued that at least some of the differences between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited delinquents are biologically or genetically based, and recent research lends support to that argument” (Akers & Sellers, 2013)  Thinking that the thought of delinquency happens as soon as toddler ages, and gets worse into the adolescent years and then will either gradually decrease as they get older or become much worse; aging and the changes in their development factoring into this, making it a continuous process.
Akers, L. R., & Sellers, S. C. (2013). Crimological Theories. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Week 14 Discussion

Life-course criminologists ultimately relies on looking at a body of information over a given time then analyzing that information. Criminologists are able to look back at past events and determine how a certain instance or series of instances impacted a criminal situation. Understanding what an individual went through in their past may help understand the motive behind committing a crime. I believe that by understanding more about the offender and why they committed a crime and how their past influenced that crime, may provide a starting point for professionals to identify early warning signs.


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