Keiser University STEM Education Research Paper

Description:

The Project is made up of five parts. The end result is an eight-to-nine-page written paper about your selected topic (see topic options in Module 1). Your final paper will include:

  1. Introduction (statement of the problem)
  2. Literature review
  3. Background information/history
  4. Global perspective
  5. Future implications
  6. Conclusion
  7. References

STEM schooling is built on the idea of educating learners in four fields through an interdisciplinary and applied strategy. From the abbreviation itself, STEM stands for Science, Technology, Engineering, and mathematics, respectively. The STEM-based curriculum integrates the four disciplines through a cohesive learning paradigm depending on the real-world applications instead of teaching the subjects separately. Despite the United States leading in these fields for years, recently, some fewer students have focused on STEM topics (Jackson et al., 2021). The US Department of Education reported that only 16 percent of students in high school are interested in STEM, and most of them have shown ability in mathematics. Additionally, the department says that nearly 28 % of high school newly admitted learners exhibits interest in the STEM field. Fifty-seven percent of these learners will drop interest by the period they are eligible for high school graduation. These reports are available on the department‘s website.

Consequently, during the Obama administration, a campaign named Educate to Innovate was launched. Its main aim was to inspire and motivate students to excel in STEM-related subjects. In addition, the campaign was meant to address the insufficient number of skilled and experienced teachers in the field (Wang et al., 2020). These strategies were anchored in getting American learners from the middle of the pack to the top in math and science internationally. Due to this, thirteen agencies have partnered with the Committee on Stem Education (CoSTEM) to ensure the campaign’s success. CoSTEM’s main task is creating a joint national plan to invest national funds in K-12 STEM education, increasing STEM engagement with youths and the public, raising undergraduates’ STEM experience, ensuring the underrepresented populations in STEM have been reached and developing a better graduate education for the STEM workforce. Currently, the US Department of Education offers several STEM-related programs. Amongst the programs offered include researching with a STEM emphasis, grant selection, and general programs.

STEM education is of great value to society, its strategy is based on addressing a need in society and improving US citizens’ living standards. The curriculum increases literature in science-related subjects, enhances critical thinking, and boosts youths’ lives’ outlook. Leaners need a more in-depth knowledge of science and math, and STEM education is the best way to provide this knowledge. Therefore, it generally helps students develop and improve skills essential for most jobs in the 21st century. The US Department of Commerce reported that STEM-related occupations grow by 14 percent compared to 4 percent growth in other occupations. Workers with science, math, engineering, and technology skills play a crucial role in the sustained growth and stability of the United States economy (Higde & Aktamis, 2021). Additionally, it is a vital component in helping the USA win the future. Through what is taught in critical thinking, communication, and solving problems, learners acquire knowledge which helps solve problem and challenges facing the country today. According to a 2014 research by the America Society for Engineering Education, STEM programs students get an opportunity to think inventively, fundamentally, and imaginatively. In addition, the learners under these programs have the chances to be unsuccessful and try again under safe circumstances of learning (America Society for Engineering Education 3). By utilizing a building configuration approach, STEM synchronizes and applies information on science and math to make advances and answers for real matters.

Literature Review

The STEM education was initially called SMET (science, mathematics, engineering, and technology). It was an ingenuity promoted by the National Science Foundations (NSF), which had the same objectives as the current STEM objectives. STEM is an acronym that represents science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (Holmlund et al., 2018). S for science is highly concerned with the natural world. It prepares students to think and act like real scientists in their fields of expertise, hypothesize, ask questions, and carry out investigations by employing standard science practices. Science programs majorly deal with biology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, among other science-related courses. On the other hand, the T for technology deals with how the natural world can be modified to meet human needs and wants in the current era. Therefore, it mainly deals with designing, making, and developing ideas to meet human wants. Primarily, technology is concerned with what can and should be done from the natural world to substances to facilitate meeting the unending human needs and wants. E stands for engineering, a field in which mathematical and natural knowledge is applied with judgment to improve means of economically utilizing natural forces and materials to benefit people. Lastly, M stands for mathematics (Carlisle & Weaver, 2018). This is a science of patterns and relationships that provides the exact language for technology, engineering, and science. Since the understanding of these four subject programs is highly considered for economic development, several countries have tried improving the quality of education in science, technology, engineering, and math.

In many countries, STEM education, the four fields are integrated as input and output. Therefore, STEM curriculum can be regarded as a method of learning and teaching that competently integrates skills and content from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics- which is performed as an input. On the other hand, it can be viewed as a strategy in the global market’s economic competitiveness. In addition, STEM is connected in filling requests such as guaranteeing adequate and maintaining energy and productivity. This is regarded as the STEM output. Therefore, in general, STEM education provides opportunities to students to be inventors, innovators, logical thinkers, problem solvers, self-confident, and technologically knowledgeable. STEM education idea has been around the world for many years. Its contemplation began in the 1990s; therefore, it can be successfully implemented for the k-16 learners (Higde & Aktamis, 2021). This will prepare the students to be competent in all levels with the necessary skills required in our speedily expanding scientific society. This will also provide a good platform for the students to be successful in the future. By improving STEM education, there will be an increase in literacy scientific and technological areas among people across the population.

Most stakeholders seemed not to know how to operationalize STEM since it has been unclear how they can start with STEM implementation several years later. Previously, there was no clarification on standard definitions of quality STEM education. In many developing countries, the implementation of STEM education is still under consideration compared to many developed countries that have already implemented it.

Research methodology

This paper aims to explain STEM education, approaches, implementation, gaps, and benefits of the initiative. In this research paper, a Literature review will be used as the data collection method. Several scholars have discussed STEM education and its benefits.

Mainly, three approaches have been employed in implementing STEM education in the learning process. These approaches are; SILO approach, embedded approach, and integrated approach. The silo approach involves separating the individual subjects and implement them separately. The approach is more of a teacher-driven classroom since it focuses on teaching the students to know. Therefore, they have few opportunities to learn through practicing (Holmlund et al., 2018). The main demerits of the approach are that it has the predisposition to separate potential STEM supporters from real life. In addition, it can create different perceptions in students regarding the STEM components, which can inhibit their academic growth. The other method is the embedded approach. It primarily focuses on problem-solving and real-world situations. Therefore, it completes and strengthens the material learned by the students through application and understanding. Its main disadvantages include students risking their lesson as they cannot associate the embedded content to the lesson’s context. The third approach commonly used is the integrated approach. It implements STEM education as a whole by eliminating the boundaries between the components. Since teachers have difficulties teaching in an integrated approach, pedagogical training is needed. The integrated approach offers several benefits and is regarded as the best approach to implementing STEM education (Li et al., 2019).

In the 21st century, there is a lot of technological advancements. STEM education will provide competent people in the digital world, enhancing more developments and advancements. The students in STEM education are able to develop their competency levels through enhanced cognitive development, interpersonal and intrapersonal domains development. Scientific fields have a special place in the 21st century. Some of the competencies required in the 21st-century workforce include; character, citizenship, critical thinking, collaboration, communicating skills, creativity, and innovation. All these are catered for in STEM education. Students graduating from STEM education will manage to effectively face and survive the digital era presented by the 21st century. However, there are many gaps that need to be addressed to make STEM more engaging. The first thing that scholars should address is the way of ensuring gender balance in STEM education. For many years, females have been excluded from technical subjects. Only men dominate in mathematics, engineering, science, and technology subjects. The take-up of physical sciences and technology fields is shallow amongst females. In addition, the availability of these subjects is limited in girls-schools. In order to address national skills needs, more girls should be encouraged to pursue these subjects (Ostby et al., 2017). Government and education experts should ensure there is the availability of science and technology subjects in the girls-schools. More teachers should be deployed in the schools to ensure there is an appropriate student: teacher ratio. Several factors interact, leading to the low numbers of girls found in STEM education. These factors comprise societal, individual, institutional, and cultural influences.

The second barrier to STEM education is stereotypes related to people working in sciences and technology places. Students with negative stereotypes towards STEM professions will be negatively affected in STEM career-related activities and outcomes (Luo et al., 2021). On the other hand, the students with interest and positive mindset regarding STEM subjects will most probably succeed in the field. Students‘ stereotypes on STEM subjects usually affect their self-efficacy and result hopes. In order to deal with this, experts should guide freshly admitted students in discarding any misinformation they might be having. Directing students in choosing a career will ensure stereotypes will be reduced since facts will be at their disposal.

Background Information (History of STEM Education)

As stated above, STEM was initially referred to as SMET. In 2001, the assistant director of education and human resources at NSF then, Judith Ramaley reorganized the SMET words forming STEM. Since the year 2001, STEM education has spread globally to many countries. E.g., countries like UK, Australia, France, China, South Korea, and Taiwan have embraced the curriculum. Following the publication of several reports, science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines have increased being published since the early 2000s. For instance, Rising Above the Gathering Storm (2005) emphasized links between science and technology knowledge-intense jobs, prosperity, and societal development through innovation. Compared to other countries, USA students were not prospering in STEM subjects. The report warned of awful consequences if the nation fails to compete in the international market economically. According to the report, insufficient workforce preparation could help lender US non-competitive in the global economy. Following this, more attention was given to the STEM subjects. In 2006, US students ranked 21st out of 30 countries on scientific knowledge and competency (Ikkatai et al., 2021). This indicated underperformance making the country work and establish strategies to curb the poor performance.

In working towards achieving a prepared STEM workforce, the main challenge that the US faced was determining strategic capital expenses that would have resulted in the most significant impact on preparing the STEM scholars. The accomplishment of implementing STEM education was viewed from the students to the graduates. Since there was no typical explanation of STEM, the Claude Worthington Benedum Foundation commissioned a study to determine if the initiatives anticipated met the educator’s needs. The study found that most US educators were not sure of all students‘ STEM implications regarding science and technology literacy. They lacked informed knowledge on STEM careers, and consequently, they were unqualified in guiding students on STEM subjects. From several studies carried out, state governors were encouraged to seek ways of leading their states towards ensuring students graduating from high school had essential STEM competencies and knowledge. This was mainly to ensure they succeed in post-secondary education and in work.

Experiences on STEM education are availed through various settings by schools and community organizations to foster assorted STEM personnel. Educators employed several approaches to improve mathematics and science in K-12 STEM schooling. For instance, some instructors unified project-based activities that demanded familiarity and skill application in particular areas, including manufacturing. On some occasions, teachers included extramural activities. Students worked together in such activities and competitions as building robots or mock-engineering cities. Additionally, students were given opportunities of spending time with specific professionals either through internships or through job-shadowing. An Australian research on worldwide STEM practices and policies in 2013 found that several countries globally were at work towards broadening the partaking of underrepresented and marginalized groups in STEM studies and occupations (Khan Rodrigues, 2017). In addition, efforts to increase awareness among the public through problem-solving activities and applications were enhanced. In developing countries, STEM-specific pathways have been created with technical, vocational, and academic tracks in the implementation strategy. In Europe and the US, educational officials, experts, and other foundations called for the development of particular programs to help educators have the connection between classroom science content and STEM occupational opportunities where students would apply their gained knowledge and skills. All persons with knowledge and skills on STEM-related subjects are key in driving economic competitiveness and growth through inventions and modernizations that address global tests while creating more jobs at the same time.

References

Carlisle, D. L., & Weaver, G. C. (2018). STEM education centers: catalyzing the improvement of undergraduate STEM education. International Journal of STEM Education, 5(1). https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A562042222/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=ebbb9564

Higde, E., & Aktamis, H. (2021). Determination of STEM Product-Performance Levels and Opinions of Seventh Grade Students. HAYEF: Journal of Education, 18(2), 220+. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A666103605/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=e13cae38

Holmlund, T. D., Lesseig, K., & Slavit, D. (2018). Making sense of “STEM education” in K-12 contexts. International Journal of STEM Education, 5(1). https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A551668974/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=e1d3b4c9

Ikkatai, Y., Inoue, A., Minamizaki, A., Kano, K., McKay, E., & Yokoyama, H. M. (2021). Effect of providing gender equality information on students‘ motivations to choose STEM. PLoS ONE, 16(6), e0252710. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A666195064/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=eaea941a

Jackson, C., Mohr-Schroeder, M. J., Bush, S. B., Maiorca, C., Roberts, T., Yost, C., & Fowler, A. (2021). Equity-Oriented Conceptual Framework for K-12 STEM literacy. International Journal of STEM Education, 8(1), NA. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A666288885/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=83aa0615

Li, Y., Froyd, J. E., & Wang, K. (2019). Learning about research and readership development in STEM education: a systematic analysis of the journal’s publications from 2014 to 2018. International Journal of STEM Education, 6(1). https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A589025848/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=281f9c95

Li, Y., Wang, K., Xiao, Y., & Froyd, J. E. (2020). Research and trends in STEM education: a systematic review of journal publications. International Journal of STEM Education, 7(1). https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A617043881/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=af0fdee9

Luo, T., So, W. W. M., Wan, Z. H., & Li, W. C. (2021). STEM stereotypes predict students‘ STEM career interest via self-efficacy and outcome expectations. International Journal of STEM Education, 8(1), NA. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A662147037/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=1eb47c18

Ostby, G., Urdal, H., & Rudolfsen, I. (2017). What Is Driving Gender Equality in Secondary Education? Evidence from 57 Developing Countries, 1970-2010. Education Research International. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A551963877/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=10d734ee

Stem for girls from low-income families: Making dreams come true. Journal of Developing Areas, 51(2), 435+. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A492899050/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=8a143decSTEM schooling is built on the idea of educating learners in four fields through an interdisciplinary and applied strategy. From the abbreviation itself, STEM stands for Science, Technology, Engineering, and mathematics, respectively. The STEM-based curriculum integrates the four disciplines through a cohesive learning paradigm depending on the real-world applications instead of teaching the subjects separately. Despite the United States leading in these fields for years, recently, some fewer students have focused on STEM topics (Jackson et al., 2021). The US Department of Education reported that only 16 percent of students in high school are interested in STEM, and most of them have shown ability in mathematics. Additionally, the department says that nearly 28 % of high school newly admitted learners exhibits interest in the STEM field. Fifty-seven percent of these learners will drop interest by the period they are eligible for high school graduation. These reports are available on the department‘s website.

Consequently, during the Obama administration, a campaign named Educate to Innovate was launched. Its main aim was to inspire and motivate students to excel in STEM-related subjects. In addition, the campaign was meant to address the insufficient number of skilled and experienced teachers in the field (Wang et al., 2020). These strategies were anchored in getting American learners from the middle of the pack to the top in math and science internationally. Due to this, thirteen agencies have partnered with the Committee on Stem Education (CoSTEM) to ensure the campaign’s success. CoSTEM’s main task is creating a joint national plan to invest national funds in K-12 STEM education, increasing STEM engagement with youths and the public, raising undergraduates’ STEM experience, ensuring the underrepresented populations in STEM have been reached and developing a better graduate education for the STEM workforce. Currently, the US Department of Education offers several STEM-related programs. Amongst the programs offered include researching with a STEM emphasis, grant selection, and general programs.

STEM education is of great value to society, its strategy is based on addressing a need in society and improving US citizens’ living standards. The curriculum increases literature in science-related subjects, enhances critical thinking, and boosts youths’ lives’ outlook. Leaners need a more in-depth knowledge of science and math, and STEM education is the best way to provide this knowledge. Therefore, it generally helps students develop and improve skills essential for most jobs in the 21st century. The US Department of Commerce reported that STEM-related occupations grow by 14 percent compared to 4 percent growth in other occupations. Workers with science, math, engineering, and technology skills play a crucial role in the sustained growth and stability of the United States economy (Higde & Aktamis, 2021). Additionally, it is a vital component in helping the USA win the future. Through what is taught in critical thinking, communication, and solving problems, learners acquire knowledge which helps solve problem and challenges facing the country today. According to a 2014 research by the America Society for Engineering Education, STEM programs students get an opportunity to think inventively, fundamentally, and imaginatively. In addition, the learners under these programs have the chances to be unsuccessful and try again under safe circumstances of learning (America Society for Engineering Education 3). By utilizing a building configuration approach, STEM synchronizes and applies information on science and math to make advances and answers for real matters.

Literature Review

The STEM education was initially called SMET (science, mathematics, engineering, and technology). It was an ingenuity promoted by the National Science Foundations (NSF), which had the same objectives as the current STEM objectives. STEM is an acronym that represents science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (Holmlund et al., 2018). S for science is highly concerned with the natural world. It prepares students to think and act like real scientists in their fields of expertise, hypothesize, ask questions, and carry out investigations by employing standard science practices. Science programs majorly deal with biology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, among other science-related courses. On the other hand, the T for technology deals with how the natural world can be modified to meet human needs and wants in the current era. Therefore, it mainly deals with designing, making, and developing ideas to meet human wants. Primarily, technology is concerned with what can and should be done from the natural world to substances to facilitate meeting the unending human needs and wants. E stands for engineering, a field in which mathematical and natural knowledge is applied with judgment to improve means of economically utilizing natural forces and materials to benefit people. Lastly, M stands for mathematics (Carlisle & Weaver, 2018). This is a science of patterns and relationships that provides the exact language for technology, engineering, and science. Since the understanding of these four subject programs is highly considered for economic development, several countries have tried improving the quality of education in science, technology, engineering, and math.

In many countries, STEM education, the four fields are integrated as input and output. Therefore, STEM curriculum can be regarded as a method of learning and teaching that competently integrates skills and content from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics- which is performed as an input. On the other hand, it can be viewed as a strategy in the global market’s economic competitiveness. In addition, STEM is connected in filling requests such as guaranteeing adequate and maintaining energy and productivity. This is regarded as the STEM output. Therefore, in general, STEM education provides opportunities to students to be inventors, innovators, logical thinkers, problem solvers, self-confident, and technologically knowledgeable. STEM education idea has been around the world for many years. Its contemplation began in the 1990s; therefore, it can be successfully implemented for the k-16 learners (Higde & Aktamis, 2021). This will prepare the students to be competent in all levels with the necessary skills required in our speedily expanding scientific society. This will also provide a good platform for the students to be successful in the future. By improving STEM education, there will be an increase in literacy scientific and technological areas among people across the population.

Most stakeholders seemed not to know how to operationalize STEM since it has been unclear how they can start with STEM implementation several years later. Previously, there was no clarification on standard definitions of quality STEM education. In many developing countries, the implementation of STEM education is still under consideration compared to many developed countries that have already implemented it.

Research methodology

This paper aims to explain STEM education, approaches, implementation, gaps, and benefits of the initiative. In this research paper, a Literature review will be used as the data collection method. Several scholars have discussed STEM education and its benefits.

Mainly, three approaches have been employed in implementing STEM education in the learning process. These approaches are; SILO approach, embedded approach, and integrated approach. The silo approach involves separating the individual subjects and implement them separately. The approach is more of a teacher-driven classroom since it focuses on teaching the students to know. Therefore, they have few opportunities to learn through practicing (Holmlund et al., 2018). The main demerits of the approach are that it has the predisposition to separate potential STEM supporters from real life. In addition, it can create different perceptions in students regarding the STEM components, which can inhibit their academic growth. The other method is the embedded approach. It primarily focuses on problem-solving and real-world situations. Therefore, it completes and strengthens the material learned by the students through application and understanding. Its main disadvantages include students risking their lesson as they cannot associate the embedded content to the lesson’s context. The third approach commonly used is the integrated approach. It implements STEM education as a whole by eliminating the boundaries between the components. Since teachers have difficulties teaching in an integrated approach, pedagogical training is needed. The integrated approach offers several benefits and is regarded as the best approach to implementing STEM education (Li et al., 2019).

In the 21st century, there is a lot of technological advancements. STEM education will provide competent people in the digital world, enhancing more developments and advancements. The students in STEM education are able to develop their competency levels through enhanced cognitive development, interpersonal and intrapersonal domains development. Scientific fields have a special place in the 21st century. Some of the competencies required in the 21st-century workforce include; character, citizenship, critical thinking, collaboration, communicating skills, creativity, and innovation. All these are catered for in STEM education. Students graduating from STEM education will manage to effectively face and survive the digital era presented by the 21st century. However, there are many gaps that need to be addressed to make STEM more engaging. The first thing that scholars should address is the way of ensuring gender balance in STEM education. For many years, females have been excluded from technical subjects. Only men dominate in mathematics, engineering, science, and technology subjects. The take-up of physical sciences and technology fields is shallow amongst females. In addition, the availability of these subjects is limited in girls-schools. In order to address national skills needs, more girls should be encouraged to pursue these subjects (Ostby et al., 2017). Government and education experts should ensure there is the availability of science and technology subjects in the girls-schools. More teachers should be deployed in the schools to ensure there is an appropriate student: teacher ratio. Several factors interact, leading to the low numbers of girls found in STEM education. These factors comprise societal, individual, institutional, and cultural influences.

The second barrier to STEM education is stereotypes related to people working in sciences and technology places. Students with negative stereotypes towards STEM professions will be negatively affected in STEM career-related activities and outcomes (Luo et al., 2021). On the other hand, the students with interest and positive mindset regarding STEM subjects will most probably succeed in the field. Students‘ stereotypes on STEM subjects usually affect their self-efficacy and result hopes. In order to deal with this, experts should guide freshly admitted students in discarding any misinformation they might be having. Directing students in choosing a career will ensure stereotypes will be reduced since facts will be at their disposal.

Background Information (History of STEM Education)

As stated above, STEM was initially referred to as SMET. In 2001, the assistant director of education and human resources at NSF then, Judith Ramaley reorganized the SMET words forming STEM. Since the year 2001, STEM education has spread globally to many countries. E.g., countries like UK, Australia, France, China, South Korea, and Taiwan have embraced the curriculum. Following the publication of several reports, science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines have increased being published since the early 2000s. For instance, Rising Above the Gathering Storm (2005) emphasized links between science and technology knowledge-intense jobs, prosperity, and societal development through innovation. Compared to other countries, USA students were not prospering in STEM subjects. The report warned of awful consequences if the nation fails to compete in the international market economically. According to the report, insufficient workforce preparation could help lender US non-competitive in the global economy. Following this, more attention was given to the STEM subjects. In 2006, US students ranked 21st out of 30 countries on scientific knowledge and competency (Ikkatai et al., 2021). This indicated underperformance making the country work and establish strategies to curb the poor performance.

In working towards achieving a prepared STEM workforce, the main challenge that the US faced was determining strategic capital expenses that would have resulted in the most significant impact on preparing the STEM scholars. The accomplishment of implementing STEM education was viewed from the students to the graduates. Since there was no typical explanation of STEM, the Claude Worthington Benedum Foundation commissioned a study to determine if the initiatives anticipated met the educator’s needs. The study found that most US educators were not sure of all students‘ STEM implications regarding science and technology literacy. They lacked informed knowledge on STEM careers, and consequently, they were unqualified in guiding students on STEM subjects. From several studies carried out, state governors were encouraged to seek ways of leading their states towards ensuring students graduating from high school had essential STEM competencies and knowledge. This was mainly to ensure they succeed in post-secondary education and in work.

Experiences on STEM education are availed through various settings by schools and community organizations to foster assorted STEM personnel. Educators employed several approaches to improve mathematics and science in K-12 STEM schooling. For instance, some instructors unified project-based activities that demanded familiarity and skill application in particular areas, including manufacturing. On some occasions, teachers included extramural activities. Students worked together in such activities and competitions as building robots or mock-engineering cities. Additionally, students were given opportunities of spending time with specific professionals either through internships or through job-shadowing. An Australian research on worldwide STEM practices and policies in 2013 found that several countries globally were at work towards broadening the partaking of underrepresented and marginalized groups in STEM studies and occupations (Khan Rodrigues, 2017). In addition, efforts to increase awareness among the public through problem-solving activities and applications were enhanced. In developing countries, STEM-specific pathways have been created with technical, vocational, and academic tracks in the implementation strategy. In Europe and the US, educational officials, experts, and other foundations called for the development of particular programs to help educators have the connection between classroom science content and STEM occupational opportunities where students would apply their gained knowledge and skills. All persons with knowledge and skills on STEM-related subjects are key in driving economic competitiveness and growth through inventions and modernizations that address global tests while creating more jobs at the same time.

References

Carlisle, D. L., & Weaver, G. C. (2018). STEM education centers: catalyzing the improvement of undergraduate STEM education. International Journal of STEM Education, 5(1). https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A562042222/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=ebbb9564

Higde, E., & Aktamis, H. (2021). Determination of STEM Product-Performance Levels and Opinions of Seventh Grade Students. HAYEF: Journal of Education, 18(2), 220+. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A666103605/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=e13cae38

Holmlund, T. D., Lesseig, K., & Slavit, D. (2018). Making sense of “STEM education” in K-12 contexts. International Journal of STEM Education, 5(1). https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A551668974/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=e1d3b4c9

Ikkatai, Y., Inoue, A., Minamizaki, A., Kano, K., McKay, E., & Yokoyama, H. M. (2021). Effect of providing gender equality information on students‘ motivations to choose STEM. PLoS ONE, 16(6), e0252710. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A666195064/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=eaea941a

Jackson, C., Mohr-Schroeder, M. J., Bush, S. B., Maiorca, C., Roberts, T., Yost, C., & Fowler, A. (2021). Equity-Oriented Conceptual Framework for K-12 STEM literacy. International Journal of STEM Education, 8(1), NA. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A666288885/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=83aa0615

Li, Y., Froyd, J. E., & Wang, K. (2019). Learning about research and readership development in STEM education: a systematic analysis of the journal’s publications from 2014 to 2018. International Journal of STEM Education, 6(1). https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A589025848/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=281f9c95

Li, Y., Wang, K., Xiao, Y., & Froyd, J. E. (2020). Research and trends in STEM education: a systematic review of journal publications. International Journal of STEM Education, 7(1). https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A617043881/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=af0fdee9

Luo, T., So, W. W. M., Wan, Z. H., & Li, W. C. (2021). STEM stereotypes predict students‘ STEM career interest via self-efficacy and outcome expectations. International Journal of STEM Education, 8(1), NA. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A662147037/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=1eb47c18

Ostby, G., Urdal, H., & Rudolfsen, I. (2017). What Is Driving Gender Equality in Secondary Education? Evidence from 57 Developing Countries, 1970-2010. Education Research International. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A551963877/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=10d734ee

Stem for girls from low-income families: Making dreams come true. Journal of Developing Areas, 51(2), 435+. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A492899050/GPS?u=miss22358&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=8a143dec 

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