Multiple Myeloma

Topic: Causes and Molecular Pathology of Multiple Myeloma (MM).   After modifying or rewriting the attached proposal which will become the Project, you can include: 1, Brief description of Stages of Multiple myeloma (MM), risk factors, genetics and its pathogenesis (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and asymptomatic myeloma (Smoldering Multiple Myeloma) that precedes MM should be included. 2, A brief literature research Case Study of MM: that provides additional analysis of multiple myeloma’s genetic characteristics by demonstrating the most effective bone marrow sampling methods by comparing the effectiveness of clinical sampling and functional magnetic resonance and imaging-guided sampling. The study can provide a comparative analysis of the possible genetic changes in multiple myeloma and attempt to correlate them with the disease’s prognosis. OR Any Multiple myeloma-related Case study that can illustrate the project topic with relevant diagnostic biomarkers. 3, How is MM laboratory diagnosed (e,g, bone marrow biopsy, Serum and Urine electrophoresis method, and other methods that are used).   Here is the general order you should follow in the writing of the project topic: Cover page with title, Summary, Background includes (Hypothesis, specific aims, and the question/rationale, significance, innovation), Approach/methods; and finally references.   Project Summary Typically, research summaries are less than 400 words and are an overview of the project.   l.  Someone who receives your project should get a good idea of what they will be reading by first looking at the short summary.   Your project summary should state: 1.     What is the problem 2.     Why you are doing the project (the rationale) 3.     The overall goal(s) of study 4.     The specific aims of the project 5.     How you are going to carry out the aims (briefly) 6.     The overall significance   The summary should be limited to 250 – 400 words.     Hypothesis or Research Question Regardless of placement, at some point in your proposals you need to clearly identify the problem or knowledge gap that your project is responding to.  Most researchers feel that a good project is driven by a strong hypothesis.  Hence, the hypothesis is the foundation of your research proposal.  Make sure the hypothesis is solid, important to the field and you must have a means of testing it.  You should provide a rationale for your hypothesis that is based on current, scientific literature.  A good hypothesis should increase the understanding of biological processes, diseases, treatments, and/or preventions.  The hypothesis should be stated in BOTH the specific aims section and the abstract. If you are doing a literature review project, you will not have a project, but you will have a research question that you are answering.   Purpose/Rationale The purpose or rationale of a project can be placed in several different sections of a proposal and are many times incorporated into the specific aims.  The essential aspect of this section is to specify to the reader – and yourself- the precise focus of your research and to identify key concepts you will be studying.  A clear statement of purpose will explain the goals and research objectives of the study (what do you hope to find?), show the original contributions of your study by explaining how your research questions or approach are different from previous research and include a rationale for the study (why should we study this?).       Specific Aims The specific aims are the objectives of your research project – what you want to accomplish.  The specific aims typically begin with an introduction and a very concise background of what issue you are proposing to study. The project aims should be driven by the hypothesis or project question you set out to test.  Make sure they are highly focused.  Begin this section by stating the general purpose or major objectives of your research.  If you have more than one hypothesis, state-specific aims for each one.  Your research methods will relate directly to the aims you have described.  Do not confuse specific aims with long term goals     Relevance/Significance Section   A clear statement of significance may discuss the contribution you anticipate making to existing knowledge in your field, state the importance of the problem and/or objective of your study given current knowledge and practices, and explain the usefulness or benefits of the study to both the general population and to the research community. This is not a very long section.  You want to tell the reader what relevance your project has to public health and the scientific community.   If you are doing a lab project, why are you doing this project?  Is it relevant to the lab you are working in or to improve health care or patient treatment, diagnosis, etc?  If you are doing a lit review, why is your topic relevant? Is this something that is current?  Are there little to no recent review articles on this topic so that your lit review will provide a needed summary of the relevant studies?      Innovation Section In this section, you want to tell the reader why your project is innovative.  What is different about this project compared to other publications on similar topics?         Project Plan/Approach Your research plan or approach section must tell the reader/funding agency why and how you are doing each specific aim included in your project.  The format should be as follows:  In this section, you are telling the reader how will you carry out this study?  For each specific aim, please make sure that you include the following: ·                  Hypothesis or question you are answering – What question are you answering in this aim? ·                  Experimental design – how will you be completing this aim?  You must include the methods you will be using for each aim. ·                  Anticipated results – what types of results are you expecting in this aim and what is the rationale for why you feel that you will get that result.  For example, if other published studies have shown something similar to what you are doing, you want to mention them to validate why you feel that you will get a particular outcome. ·                  Potential problems and alternative approaches – what type of issue might you expect?  If this is a lab project, this may be that a particular experiment does not work.  So what another way can you do it so that it will work?  If this is a lit review, what type of issue may come up – for example, maybe there are no published studies in an area or section you wanted to include in your review so what will you do?    This section is essential to any good research proposals.  The plan should have clear connections to the hypotheses.  An effective plan should:  introduce the overall methodological approach for each problem or question, indicate how the approach fits the overall research design (make sure your methods will actually answer your questions), describe the specific methods of data collection you will use, explain how you will analyze and interpret results (will you use statistics?), you may need to provide a rationale for more complex or unfamiliar methods, and you should address potential limitations.  Keep in mind that there is typically more than one way to do something and you should explain (and sometimes justify) your choice.  For example, if you can do either method A or method B to get the same result, you may choose to do method B due to the fact that it is more cost-effective than method A.

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