Quantitative data analysis: statistical techniques


·         Quantitative Data Analysis: Statistics




Understanding the use of basic statistical strategies is part of being a critical consumer of published research literature. Unless they plan to conduct research themselves, it is not as important for counselors to understand the mathematical calculations of the statistical techniques as it is to be able to recognize the names of the common ones and what kind of information they provide. There are several commercially-available software packages for analyzing quantitative data, one of which is described in detail in Chapter 14 of Counseling Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods.


Descriptive and Inferential Statistics


In quantitative studies, statistical techniques are used for data analysis. The two main categories of statistics are descriptive and inferential. Descriptive statistics are used to summarize the data. Some common descriptive statistics are the measures of central tendency: the mean, median, and mode. They provide information about where the middle is in distribution of scores. On the normal distribution, the mean, median, and mode are the same. Distributions are said to be skewed when extreme scores draw the mean away from the middle of the distribution. Measures of variability, such as the range, variance, and standard deviation, provide information about how widely a distribution of scores is dispersed (Erford, 2015, p. 250). The standard deviation is a measure of how the scores cluster around the mean. The greater the standard deviation, the greater the spread of scores.


Toggle DrawerHide Full Introduction


Inferential statistics are used to make inferences from the sample to the population. All inferential statistical procedures are based on probability theory. They are used to test hypotheses. Three commonly used inferential statistics are chi square, t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Chi square is used with nominal data to determine if the observed expected frequency differs significantly from the expected frequency. A t-test is used to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the means of two groups. ANOVA is used to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the means of three or more groups.


Statistical Significance


When a quantitative study tests a hypothesis, it is technically the null hypothesis being tested. The null hypothesis says there is no difference between the groups, or relationship between the variables (depending on the research design). If the statistical procedure indicates there is statistical significance, the null hypothesis is rejected, meaning that the probability is high that there really is a group difference or strong relationship between the variables.


Rejecting the null hypothesis is not equivalent to proving the research or alternative hypothesis. Researchers can embrace the research hypothesis as one plausible explanation, but because only the null hypothesis can be tested, the researcher cannot be completely certain. That is why it is inaccurate to say that a study proves something. It is more prudent and correct to state that the findings from this study lend support to the theory, or the results fail to support the theory.




The concept of validity has several applications to research. External validity is the extent to which the research findings can be generalized from the sample to the population. Internal validity is the extent to which we can trust that the changes in the dependent variable are due to the effect of the independent variable. There exist multiple threats to external validity and internal validity. One of the threats to internal validity has to do with instrumentation, which is the quality of the measurement instrument being used to collect data.


When instruments are used to assess one or more variables, consideration must be given to their validity and reliability. These are some of the concepts with which to be familiar: face validity, content validity, criterion validity, construct validity, inter-rater reliability, internal consistency reliability, equivalent forms reliability, and test-retest reliability.




Erford, B. T. (2015). Research and evaluation in counseling (2nd ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage.




To successfully complete this learning unit, you will be expected to:


1.    Describe descriptive and inferential statistical concepts in a research study




Assignment  Quantitative Data Analysis: Statistical Techniques




After studying the introduction to this unit and completing the study activities, summarize the quantitative research article you selected. Include enough detail to provide the context for the main focus of this post, the statistical techniques that were used in the study. Identify a descriptive statistic from the study. Also, describe the statistical technique that was used to answer the research question or test the hypothesis. The description should be in your own words, not direct quotes from the article. Cite and reference the course text to demonstrate that you are incorporating material from an authoritative source on research methods.


Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

We value our customers and so we ensure that what we do is 100% original..
With us you are guaranteed of quality work done by our qualified experts.Your information and everything that you do with us is kept completely confidential.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

The Product ordered is guaranteed to be original. Orders are checked by the most advanced anti-plagiarism software in the market to assure that the Product is 100% original. The Company has a zero tolerance policy for plagiarism.

Read more

Free-revision policy

The Free Revision policy is a courtesy service that the Company provides to help ensure Customer’s total satisfaction with the completed Order. To receive free revision the Company requires that the Customer provide the request within fourteen (14) days from the first completion date and within a period of thirty (30) days for dissertations.

Read more

Privacy policy

The Company is committed to protect the privacy of the Customer and it will never resell or share any of Customer’s personal information, including credit card data, with any third party. All the online transactions are processed through the secure and reliable online payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By placing an order with us, you agree to the service we provide. We will endear to do all that it takes to deliver a comprehensive paper as per your requirements. We also count on your cooperation to ensure that we deliver on this mandate.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages