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write one long paragraph each for each readings response/ feedback 

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1. What are the uses and limitations of Bloom’s Taxonomy?

Bloom’s Taxonomy’s are used as a means for teachers, schools, and/or districts to classify and evaluate instructional goals in order to create educational objectives. Once created, said educational objectives should progress from lower level cognitive skills, to higher order cognitive skills; therefore, “lower level skills within a domain are generally considered prerequisite to higher levels.” building upon the lower level prerequisite knowledge.”(FlindersThe Curriculum Studies Reader, 2013, p. 102)

A limitation of Bloom’s Taxonomy is that the desired, theoretical progression through the cognitive skills might not necessarily occur if a teacher, school, and/or district repeatedly target lower level cognitive skills.

What is an instructional goal? What is an objective?

Depending upon whom is being asked, the terms “instructional goals” and “instructional objectives” are often used indiscriminately of each other. Within these situations, both terms simply refer to the “aims, and intents, etc” of the instruction. (FlindersThe Curriculum Studies Reader, 2013, p.95)

With other people, and in other settings, a “‘goal’ describes a broader descriptions of intent”; whilst an “‘objective’ denotes a more specific spelling out of the goal”.(FlindersThe Curriculum Studies Reader, 2013, p. 95) The two definitions call to mind the following analogy: The instructional goal is an entire tree. While the objective, is one branch of said tree. In this way, one better understands the difference, yet the intrinsic relationship between the two terms remains apparent.

How do goals and objectives drive instruction?

Goals should function like a large tree, as in the aforementioned analogy. A goal is an overarching big picture of what is to be learned. The objective used to accomplish the learning, should not be overarching. Objectives should be: A. Clear and concise, B. Include a measurable learner behavior, and C. Include a verb delineating how said learner behavior will be accomplished.

A well written objective should never include words such as: know, review, learn, will do. All of those verbs are neither measurable, nor clear. Making them less than ideal to be used as an educational objective.

How does/should a teacher determine goals and objectives?

When determining goals/objectives, a teacher should consider many factors. One should evaluate which cognitive level of Bloom’s Taxonomy is required to complete the objective. Are there any covert skills that need to be taught before the goal? One should also consider the most suitable verb choice to achieve the goal.

How do politics (at the local, state, national and international level) contribute to the setting of classroom goals and objectives?

Internationally, the United States does not fare well in math, science, or reading in comparison with other developed nations. In fact, the United States continues to lose ground in those three areas yearly, according to Linda Darling-Hammond’s youtube video, “Becoming Internationally Competitive.”

Historically, states acted independently in creating the academic standards to be taught. There were a myriad of standards, some good, some bad, and zero, if any uniformity. In the same video, Darling-Hammond mentioned that in “some states the standards were sort of an inch deep and a mile-wide,” speaking to the very shallow nature of the standards. The standards expected to be covered from K-12 were often one hundred pages long. In comparison, other nations have standards that are 10 pages long from K-12. Again, speaking to the shallowness and exorbitant amount of material covered in the U.S.

Historically, at the local level, school districts, independently, decided how each standard would be covered, which books were read and at what grade level, etc.

In response to all of these issues, the Common Core State Standards, CCSS, have been designed and implemented by the majority of states. In theory, the CCSS are supposed to make expectations uniform, encourage in depth/critical thinking, and produce students that can compete internationally in all areas.                                                                                                                                                                                             

References:

Flinders, D.J., Thornton, S.J., (Ed). (2013). The Curriculum Studies Reader (4th Edition). New York, NY: Routledge.

 

 

2.In  the  educational  field  of  teaching  and  learning,  Bloom;s  taxonomy  has  been  a  ladder  that  comprises  of  multi  tiered  scale  which  is  used  to  show  the  level  of  educator’s  expertise  in  order  to  achieve  the  expected  student  measureable  outcome.  It  was  developed  by  collaborative  efforts  of  Benjamin,  Max Engle Hart,  Edward Furst,  Walter Hill  and  David Krathwohl.  Based  on  Bloom’s  taxonomy,  human  thinking  skills  are  grouped  into  six  stages  of  skills  and  abilities.  These  are  knowledge,  comprehension,  application,  analysis,  synthesis,  and  evaluation  that  ranges  from  simple  to  complex  and  then  concrete  abstract.(Armstrong, 2001).

Uses  of  Bloom  Taxonomy

  •  Bloom’s  taxonomy  of  educational  objectives  for  higher  order  thinking  skills  is  one  of  the  most  popular  frameworks  for  writing  learning  objectives.(Bloom et al, 1994)
  • It  serves  as  appropriate  tool  for  all  grade  level  students  in  the  school  by  providing  opportunity  for  the  teacher  to  move  students  from  prior  knowledge  to  content  mastery.
  • It  help  teachers  to  challenge  students  with  higher  order  questioning  which  is  one  of  the  ways  to  stimulate  learning  and  enhance  brain  development  irrespective  of  the  age  levels  of  the  learner.
  • It  is  used  to  illustrate  the  extent  to  which  any  teacher  want  their  students  to  understand  and  use  concepts,  demonstrate  particular  skills,  values,  attitude   and interests (Blooms et al, 1994)
  • It  help  teachers  to  organize  lesson  objectives  into  measurable  goals  by  using  any  of  its  three  broad  categories – knowledge  skills  and  affective.
  • It  guide  teachers  in  identifying  the  type  of  classroom  assessment  techniques  that  will  be  most  effective  for  measuring  their  lesson  objective  goals. For  example, use  of  games  with special  education  students  help  them  to  be  continuously  involved  in  assessment  as  they  try  to  solve  puzzle  within  the  game.
  • It is used  to  design  a  wide  range  of  question  that  ranges  from  low  level  thinking  questions  to  highest  level  questions.

Limitations  of  Bloom’s  Taxonomy:

There  is  need  for  school  to  be  built  in  the  cloud  where  students  can  explore  learning  based  on  their  natural  thinking  and  also  learn  from  one  another  (Sugata, 2007). But, rather  students  response  to  knowledge  acquisition  is  usually  determined  by  the  trend  in  which  they  read  and  think  based  on  the  types  of  questions  they  are  exposed  to  by  their  teacher. For  example, students  will  respond  and  apply  skills  acquired  from  any  subject  based  on  the  fact  that  they  are  presented  with  an  overabundance  of  knowledge  level  questions  throughout  the  lesson  presentation.

What  is  an  Instructional  Goal?

This  is  a  statement  that  explains  what  every  student  exposed  to  the  lesson  presentation  should  be  able  to  do  after  acquiring  knowledge  of  a  distinct  unit  of  instruction. It  can  also  be  defined  as  solution  to  an  instructional  need  of  the  student.

What  is  an  objective?

It  is  a  goal  that  individual’s  effort  or  actions  are expected  to  attain  or  accomplish  within  a  certain  period  of  time. The purpose  of  learning  objective  in  the  classroom  is  to  inform  students  of  the  standards  and  expectations  of  the  course, drive  curriculum  planning, provide  information  for  the  development  of  assessments  by  identifying  the  types  of  evidence  that  students  need  to  demonstrate  understanding  that  will  serve  as  biding  contract  between  the  teacher  and  students  when  setting  up  basis  for  their  accountability.

How  do  Goals  and  Objectives  drive  Instruction?

Instructional  goal  is  the  general  statement  about  the  intention  of  instruction  and  while  instructional  objectives  explains  in  more  specific  way  about  how  and  to  what  extent  the  instruction  will  affect  the  learner. Both  instructional  goals  and  objectives  focus  on  what  the  learner  will  do  and  know  upon  completing  any  instructional  task. Both  goals  and  objectives  faculatate  overall  course  development  by  encouraging  goal  directed  planning  and  lesson  instructions  as  they  help  the  teacher  to  select  appropriate  materials, strategies, and  evaluation. Also, both  help  to  organize  students  learning  of  any  skill  to  be  driven  from  inside  where  the  teacher  allow  students  to  create  and  apply  natural  creativity  when  solving  any  problem. By  so  doing, it  helps  to  drive  instruction  for  both  teacher  and  students  as  they  focus  on  learning  in  such  a  way  that  it  can  provide  effective, efficient  and  engaging  instruction. Since  they  are  the  pivot  that  direct  lesson  presentation  and  evalutation.

How  Teacher  dtermine  Goals  and  Objectives?

The  aim  of  every  teacher  is  to  provide  a  conductive  atmosphere, strategies  and  motivation  that  will enhance  learning, retention, and  application  of  knowledge  within  their  subject  area. Based  on  this, it  is expected  of  every  teacher  to  be  in  constant  collaboration  with  their  colleagues  at  both  at  their  school  sites  or  in  blogs, webinars, attend  professional  development  workshops  where  they  can  gain  information  on  updated  skills, methodology  and  resources. For  example, use  of  activities  like  games  in  teaching  helps  to  create  fun  in  the  classroom  as  it  engages  students  into  continuous  learning  and  assessment  during  the  process  of  trying  to  solve  the  task  expected  of  them  (Gee, 2010)

Place  of  Politics  in  Setting  Classroom  Goals  and  Objectives

Politics  plays  a vital  role  in  setting  classroom  goals  and  objectives  at  the  local, state, national  and  international  levels. At  the  international  level, politics  has  created  room  for  comparison  in  students  performance  and  in  determining  the  placement  of  countries  based  on  academic  performance  of  their  students  in  common  assessment  test  that  involves  critical,  analytical  and  problem  solving  skills. At  the  Federal  level, it  has  helped  in  organizing  and  funding  new  assessments  that  is  tied  to  the  common  core  standards. It  has  assisted  in  reauthorizing  the  elementary  and  secondary  education  act  known  as  “No  Child  Left  Behind”. By  so  doing, the  federal  education  board  took  the  responsibility  to design  an  assessment  and  accountability  approach  within  United  state  that  is  more  internationally  comparable.   Within  the  state  level, politics  have  made  40  states  to  organize  themselves  create  common  core  state  standards  with  common  objectives  and  goals  for  Language  Arts, reading  and  Math  within  K – 12  grade  levels. Also, it  allows  states  to be involved  in  curriculum  and  assessment  work  that  will  allow  students  to  be engaged  in  higher  order  thinking  and  performance  skills. Then, at  the  local  level, the  county office  of education  collaborate  with  district  offices  to ensure  that  teachers  at  various  schools  sites  are  implementing  the  expected  curriculum, using  expected  teaching  strategies  and  resources  to  enhance  learning  within  their  classroom.

References;

Armstrong, B. (2001).  Bloom’s  Taxonomy. . Retrieved  February 2, 2016, from  https://cft.Vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/blooms-taxonomy/ 

 

Effective  Goal  setting  for  students. (n.d)  Retrieved  January 27, 2016, from  https://teaching.monster.com/benefits/articles/9440-effective-goal-setting-for-students

 

EPD – instructor  Resources – Goals  Learning  Objectives. (july 31, 2014). Retrieved  January 28,2016, from https://kb.wisc.edu/page.php?id=42419

 

Hammond, L. D. (2010)..Becoming  Internationally  competitive. Retrieved  February 11, 2016  from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AQNUqVy.JofE

 

How  Do  you  Define  Intructional  Goals? (n.d). Retrieved  Febraury 4, 2016, from  https://pt3.nau.edu/toolbox/how-goals.htm

 

Kamii, C (1989). Double  Column  Addition. Retireved  February 11, 2016  from  https;//www.youtube.com/watch?v=MNaAeGcZFWI

 

Marzano, R.J. (n.d). Retrieved January 27, 2016 from https://www.marzanoresearch.com/resources/tips/dtigo-tips-archive

 

Pee, J.P. (2010). Grading with Games. Retrieved February 10, 2016, fromhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ju3pwCD-eyo

 

Sugata, M. (2007) . TED Talk, Retrieved February11,2016,fromhttps://www.ted.com/talks/sugata-mitra-shows-how-kids-teach-themselves.html

 

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