I don’t know how to handle this Sociology question and need guidance.
Answer two out of these three questions based on the readings on the course syllabus. The answers should be provided in an essay format and relate to both the conceptual or theoretical arguments the authors provide as well as to the empirical evidence (statistical, ethnographic, or historical) they employ. Each answer should be 5 to 6 pages long, i.e. 10 to 12 pages for the entire exam (double-spaced, 12 point Times New Roman font). Exam are to be submitted as one document on Turnitin via the course website by the last day of finals week (December 18 th ) at 4pm.
A .Environmental problems have frequently been described as collective action problems. How does the model of the tragedy of the commons help to analyze environmental problems? What are the factors that determine whether or not collective action that addresses these problems will take place? What kind of solutions does the market (e.g. green consumption) offer and what are the advantages and disadvantages compared to political solutions (e.g. legislation)?
B.Climate change is currently one of the most discussed environmental problems. To what extent can climate change be described as a collective action problem and how does it differ from other environmental collective action problems? What kind of factors explain who perceives climate change as a pressing problem and who does not? What are the obstacles that stand in the way of both political (e.g. international legislation) and individual (e.g. lifestyle changes) solutions to climate change?
C. Environmental problems affect different groups of people differently. What kind of social factors (e.g. class and race) account for these differences and how do these differences play out on a global scale (as compared to a national one)? What are the reasons that enable some groups to shield themselves from environmental hazards, while others fail to do so? How does the ability of some groups to protect themselves in consequence shape their willingness to engage in political action that also benefits other groups in society?
Note: You do not have to provide a bibliography. The syllabus is the bibliography. Simply indicate the last name of the author, the publication date, and the page number if you quote a reading in you essay (e.g. Cronon 1996: 8).
Please no plagiarism
You will pick 2 out of 3 topics and write 2 DIFFERENT papers on it but on ONE document.
If u use quotes, plz make sure they are short.
MAKE SURE EACH ESSAY IS 5-6 PAGES AND IN TOTAL TOGETHER THE ESSAYS ARE BETWEEN 10-12 PAGES
READINGS AND PAGES NUMBERS
Hardin, Garrett. 1968. “The Tragedy of the Commons: The population problem has no
technical solution; it requires a fundamental extension in morality.” Science 162: 1243-
Ostrom, Elinor. 1990. Governing the Commons. The Evolution of Institutions for
Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1-7, 15-21, 58-69, 88-102.
Vogel, David. 1995. Trading Up: Consumer and Environmental Regulation in a Global
Economy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. vii-xiii, 218-270.
MacBride, Samantha. 2013. Recycling Reconsidered: The Present Failure and Future
Promise of Environmental Action in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 1-
Szasz, Andrew. 2007. Shopping our Way to Safety: How we Changed from Protecting
the Environment to Protecting Ourselves. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 1-
8, 99-103, 194-222
Guthman, Julie. 2004. Agrarian Dreams: The Paradox of Organic Farming in California.
Berkeley: University of California Press. 1-22, 42-60.
Esty, Daniel C. and Anthony L. I. Moffa. 2012. “Why Climate Change Collective Action
has Failed and what Needs to be Done Within and Without the Trade Regime.” Journal of
International Economic Law 15(3): 777–791.
Roberts, J. Timmons, and Bradley C. Parks. 2007. A Climate of Injustice. Global
Inequality, North-South Politics, and Climate Policy. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 133-
Oreskes, Naomi, and Erik M. Conway. 2010. Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of
Scientists obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming. New
York: Bloomsbury Press. 1-9, 169-215.
Oreskes, Naomi. 2004. “The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change.” Science 306:
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