The Energy

For this case study, you will answer the questions from the assignment to help you focus your discussion. You will take these and write up an explanation that puts them together in a paper. At the end of the paper, I want you to reflect on the new information you gained from this unit about the world around you. These questions are to help you write the paper by answering them, do not write is like a Q&A!! Capacitors have certain advantages over batteries when it comes to storing energy. a) Explain how a capacitor functions using the concepts of static electricity, Coulomb’s law, electric fields, and electrical energy.  b) Explain the advantage a capacitor has when charging and discharging using the things you learned in the capacitor lab. c) Explain the disadvantage of using a capacitor as an energy storage device compared to batteries. d) Sometimes capacitors can break down and a discharge from one plate to another occurs breaking the device. Explain how corona discharge can help you explain what is occurring to the device. Energy storage in the electric car is done using many small cells to produce the correct amount of voltage and current.  a) Explain how a battery stores energy in chemicals and then releases the energy to electricity. b) When this energy release occurs the batteries get warm. Explain why the battery heats up by discussing the flow of electricity through a resistor. c) The newest design from Tesla is called a tablet battery. It shortens the path of the electron out of the battery. Explain how this would affect the heat coming out of the battery and why. d) If you measure a Tesla Model 3 battery pack, you would read a voltage of 400 V, how is this possible when a single cell only produces 4V? How many cells would one pack need? e) The motors for an electric car require a high current (500 A) to produce the maximum power. If a single cell can produce 5 A of current how would a designer arrange the batteries to achieve this? How many packs would be needed? Explain f) a designer wants you to explain if the lighting of the car should be in parallel or series. Explains what happens to the resistance of the circuit in both cases and what happens if a bulb were to burn out. You decide to turn on the radio and listen to music as you travel down the road and you are thinking about what you learned about how the system works. a) Explain how the music is created from the speakers with magnets, coils of wire, and electricity. b) Explain how a material can be a magnet in some cases and not others. c) You look down and see that the car is telling you are traveling north. How does it know this using magnet and magnetic fields? d) As the sound travels to your ears you wonder if the air hitting your ear is the same that hit the speaker. Explain why or why not with the knowledge of how sound moves in the air. e) You are listening to a great acoustic guitar version of your favorite song. Explain why the tones of an acoustic guitar and an electric guitar sound differently with the concepts of harmonics. f) At a stoplight you notice when specific pitches are coming out the radio the windows vibrate a little. Explain why this would occur. When you hit the accelerator on your fancy new electric car it jumps without any hesitation. This is a trait of the electric motor a) Discuss the physics behind the electric motor. how does it use all the concepts from magnetism, electricity, and rotation to produce motion? b) When you hit the breaks in your electric car it beings sending electrical energy back into the car. Explain how it converts rotational energy back to electrical energy. c) The batteries of the electric car produce DC current and the motor uses AC current. Explain the difference between these two. d) The speed of the electric motor is controlled by the frequency of AC current going into it, while the torque produced is controlled by the amplitude of the voltage. Explain how transforms work to control the frequency, while resistors can control the amplitude. Any car is a complex mechanism to turn rotation motion into linear motion. In the electric car, there is one less conversion which we will discuss in the future. a) Explain how the torque and linear force on the ground at the edge of the tire relate. b) You decided to upgrade your car from the 16-inch wheels to low profile 20-inch wheels. The mass of both wheels is the same but you notice the 20-inch wheels have 4 spokes instead of 5 putting more mass at the edge of the wheel. How will this affect the response of your car? Explain with the concepts of newton’s second law of rotation, and moment of inertia c) When the wheel places a torque on the wheel the edge of the wheel pushes on the ground opposite the direction the car moves. Explain then how the car moves down the road using Newton’s laws. d) As the entire car moves forward the wheels keep static friction with the surface. Explain how this can make sense. e) Most cars are rated by power. Explain how power and energy relate, as well as the types of energy now stored in the car as a whole when traveling down the road. 

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