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Question:- Environmentalists generally agree that industrialization is a cause of environmental problems. Identify the unique characters of industrialization that cause these problems and why industrialization is unique to capitalist societies? All of the solution has to be strictly from the notes no extra sources are to be used. Answer has to be 2 single spaced pages long
Notes:- Chapter: Industrialization
The treadmill of production is a concept that is intended to give us the feeling that our productive activities, the production of more and more and more stuff to consume is sort of a process that we are stuck in, like we are on a treadmill. We labor under the assumption that we are getting better somehow with all of this stuff that we’re producing but this concept states that we are staying the same or maybe even getting worse if we look at it, that’s certainly environmentally.
Industrialization and its importance to environmentalism- If there’s really anything common to all environmentalism, really from the beginning of environmentalism in the 19th century, it is the feeling that there is something wrong with the process of industrialization, particularly in our relationship to nature. It’s the problem that it’s sort of that it violates nature in a way that pre-industrial kinds of technologies don’t.
Two different kinds of perspectives within environmentalism- Dark green environmentalism and Bright green environmentalism- Dark green environmentalism. has the historical roots in the 19th century, after the industrial revolution of the late 18th and early 19th century, there began to be the sense among thinkers again that industrialization marked a turning point in the relation of human beings to nature, that it violated nature, that it dominated nature in a way that preindustrial technologies didn’t. The view that industrialization is a form of domination, that our industrial technologies are intended to dominate nature and they enable humans to do so.
What’s the solution? Maybe we go back to the pre-industrial kind of love towards nature, small scale agricultural kinds of communities and by using hand tools.
More recently, there has emerged different kind of attitude towards industrialization. Bright green environmentalism- This is less philosophical, artistic, less contemplative form of environmentalism that simply regards industrialization not as a form of domination, but simply as a mistake. In other words, industrialization is a product of the fact that we just didn’t know enough about how nature worked in the late 18th and throughout the 19th century and even most of the 20th century for that matter. So, the industrial revolution is a mistake, just a mistake rooted in bad science.
What’s the solution? We know much more about nature now. We know much more about the way human societies are connected to nature. Back to nature, the post-industrial way. We need technologies that mimic nature, technologies that seem more natural than industrial technologies. If you think about wind power, solar power, these seem or more natural than burning coal or burning oil. Because they seem to be taking into account how nature works, making human beings live more in sync with nature. Indeed, we’re using the most cutting-edge kind of science to develop new technologies that put us more in tune with nature. So, in an interesting way we’re getting back to nature, but it’s by moving forward technologically, not by moving backward technologically. A good example is the notion of biomimicry. Putting greenery on buildings, of course, to take advantage of sunlight, to grow the work, etc. these help in making cities more natural.
These both perspectives agree on that industrialization is bad for environmental.
What is industrialization? What do we mean by industrialization? Many environmentalists fall flat in the sense that they don’t explain why industrialization took place when it did, or they provide no good explanation to that.
Most people would agree that Industrialization is rapid and sustained labor process transformations. All we mean by labor process is the way that human beings transform nature to satisfy their needs. If a society didn’t do that, obviously it wouldn’t be a society for very long. We have a labor process now that rapidly changes, this means that the way we work changes, the tools we use changes, the kinds of materials that we use change, and they change constantly between any two generations. It’s also sustained meaning that once industrialization kicks into gear, it’s a process that picks up speed and it’s difficult to imagine it ever stopping. Machinery marks the kind of advent of industrialization in the 20th century. We get the emergence of Ford ism and in particular, mass production techniques. So mass production is linking together machines with conveyor belts, for example, so that you can produce much, much more in less time. These transformations are taking place at a rapid place, digital revolution, the speed with which the world has become digitized and the workplace in particular is starling. It’s so sustaining that feels like a treadmill, the idea that it’s just happening and we just kind of have to keep up that the new technologies are going to come out. So, it’s not written in the stars somehow that we require constant technological change, but we nevertheless have it. And of course, for environmentalists, this is a problem that it’s one that we need to figure out.
Other Parts: Raw materials, Humanization of Nature, Increasing Scale, The Anthropocene, Taps, Sinks and Environmental Problems.
Why is there industrialization? Why do we have this kind of technological change? You can’t understand what industrialization is without understanding what capitalism is. By industrialization, we mean the form that technological change takes in a capitalist society where you have the motivations and that you have the pressures towards industrialization. So, what this means is that industrialization isn’t just about technology. It’s also about a set of social relations, about a kind of society that we have created that generates this treadmill of production.
First point, a primary reason why we have industrialization is to increase labor productivity on the one hand and to decrease or/and to increase new products or to develop new products on the other. By increasing labor productivity, all we mean is increasing the amount of stuff that any particular person can produce. Mass production for example, we mean producing more and more with fewer and fewer people. So, this is what technological change does. It enables every single individual person to produce much more. This is what economists would refer to as efficiency. But we call it labor productivity. New products, we are always in our society looking for new products. If you’re in marketing, if you’re in business, your whole life will rest on developing new products. Innovating, finding out new things that people can buy.
Why in our society are we so interested in labor productivity and developing new products? Because human beings are just looking for more efficient ways to produce things and looking for new products is not adequate. People were not looking for ways to make their labor more productive. They were not looking all the time to develop new products. It’s really in a society like ours that you have the pressures to do these things that we do in our society. These are two fundamental things that we do in our society.
Why would a society like that generate industrialization in a way that other kinds of societies would not? First point will be what the relations of production look like in our society. Wage-laborer- people who work at McDonald’s, Microsoft etc. And on the other hand, there are capitalists. And by capitalists, we mean people who own those places that we just mentioned. So, two different classes, with different kinds of motivations and really a different role in the economy as a whole.
How that relation of production, how that generates industrialization uniquely in a way that other relations of production would not? What these do is they provide a unique motivation for industrialization, a unique opportunity to industrialize and a unique coercive pressure to industrialize. Profit provides a motivation to industrialize in a way that societies that aren’t centered around profit don’t have. There’s a motivation to develop new technologies and new products and use new raw materials in a way that there isn’t in pre capitalist societies. In our societies, the technologies can change very quickly in order to make your labor more productive. Same thing with new products. Businesses have the opportunity to do these compared to past societies. We also have unique coercive pressure, the idea of competition among businesses, we have no choice but to develop new technologies. It is simply that we’ve created a society that generates technological development as part of what the society is, irrespective of whether anybody even wants to develop the new technology. That’s what we mean by coercion. A coercive force is one that is imposed upon us that we don’t choose as individuals. Multiple producers- many producers of any particular commodity, these producers are in competition with one another. A primary way of doing this is innovating. Generalized motivation is when a unique technology is generalized.
Last point, the corporate form, this forms really just adds to highlight a problem, it certainly introduces new kinds of social processes that are unique to the corporate form of organizing. The first point is the degree to which corporations are capable of funding capital intensive production. Corporations develop new technologies because they can, because they have the resources to compete through the development of new technologies in a way that perhaps smaller businesses can’t. Corporations have access to vast resources. Legally, they are required to look at ways for improving their profits.
Hi! I already wrote added all the notes you’ll need to answer the question. just a reminder we can’t use any external sources to answer this question and it has to be 2 single spaced pages long let me know if you need any further assistance answering the question
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